# Physics Basics

## 04 Jun Physics Basics

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Perhaps one of the most essential tools for modern scientific advances in physics. The concepts of physical studies are essential in any science tuition setup. They create a background for understanding the natural environment. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines. Its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and perhaps the oldest. The concepts of physics have been greatly utilized in important studies such as astronomy.

Physics studies the matter and its motion and behavior through space and time. It also studies the related entities of energy and force. There are important laws that govern the studies of physics. These laws basically define the behavior of matter. Of note are Newton’s three laws of motion.

The first law, also called the law of inertia, was pioneered by Galileo. This was quite a conceptual leap. It was not possible in Galileo’s time to observe a moving object without at least some frictional forces dragging against the motion. In fact, for over a thousand years before Galileo, educated individuals believed Aristotle’s formulation that, wherever there is motion, there is an external force producing that motion. The law basically asserts that an object will continue in its state of motion or rest unless acted upon by an external force.

The second law actually implies the first law. Simply put, it asserts that the force applied is equal and proportionate to the mass and acceleration. When the acceleration is zero, velocity is constant since the velocity is simply the integral with respect to time.

Newton’s third law implies conservation of momentum. It can also be seen as following from the second law: When one object ‘pushes’ a second object, there must be an equal and opposite force from the second object that cancels the applied force. Otherwise, there would be a nonzero net force. Until rather recent times physics and natural philosophy were used interchangeably for the science whose aim is the discovery and formulation of the fundamental laws of nature.