04 Mar What is acid?
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Acids have long been recognized as a distinctive class of compounds whose aqueous solutions exhibit the following properties. A characteristic of acid is that it tastes sour. It changes the color of litmus from blue to red. It reacts with certain metals to produce gaseous hydrogen. It reacts with bases to form a salt and water.
Acidic solutions have a pH less than 7, with lower pH values corresponding to increasing acidity. Common examples of acids include acetic acid (in vinegar), sulfuric acid (used in car batteries), and tartaric acid (used in baking).
Arrhenius Acid is a substance which increases the concentration of hydronium ions when added to water.
Brønsted-Lowry Acid is a material capable of acting as a proton donor. This is a less restrictive definition because solvents besides water are not excluded. Essentially, any compound that can be deprotonated is a Brønsted-Lowry acid, including typical acids, plus amines, and alcohol.
This is the most widely used definition of an acid.
Lewis Acid is a compound which can accept an electron pair to form a covalent bond. By this definition, some compounds which don’t contain hydrogen qualify as acids, including aluminum trichloride and boron trifluoride.
According to Lewis, a Lewis acid is a chemical species that can form a covalent bond by accepting an electron pair from another chemical species. Many things that are not considered acids can be defined as Lewis acids if they are able to accept electrons. Lewis acids are often described as having vacant orbitals.