# States of Matter

## 04 Feb States of Matter

Have you ever wondered why ice will become water when it is left in the room? This is due to change of state based on the substance’s boiling point and melting point. The science tuition lesson at Miracle Learning Centre will explain what these terms mean and why it happens.

Miss Ong, the science tuition teacher at Miracle Learning Centre said, “ Melting happens when solid changes to liquid. When a solid is heated, the particles gain energy and vibrate more and more eventually the particles are able to overcome the attractive forces that hold them together in their fixed positions and particles are free to move about in the liquid.”

Freezing happens when liquid changes to solid. When a liquid is cooled, the particles move slower. The mutual attractive forces become stronger and stronger eventually draw the particles back to their fixed positions.

Boiling happens when liquid changes to gas at boiling point. When a liquid is heated, the particles move faster & faster and further apart from one another eventually particles are able to move rapidly and randomly in any directions.

Condensation happens when gas changes to liquid. When a gas is cooled, the particles move slower and the attractive forces become stronger, eventually the particles are arranged closely together but able to move about in the liquid.

The boiling point and melting point of a substance can tell us many things about that substance.

Boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas, in the form of bubbles throughout the liquid . E.g. the boiling point of water is 100oC

Melting point is the temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid. E.g. the melting point ice is 0oC

Freezing point is the temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid. E.g. the freezing point of water is 0oC

Liquids can turn into gases without boiling. Evaporation is a process in which the particles in a liquid escape from the surface of the liquid into the air. E.g. Evaporation of a puddle of water.

Volatile liquids are liquids that evaporate easily at room temperature. Volatile liquids have low boiling points. E.g. alcohols, perfume.

Sublimation happens when solid changes to gas without passing through liquid state .
Sublimation is a process of changing from a solid to a gaseous state without melting.

For example, on heating iodine, the black solid iodine changes to violet iodine gas.

The second example is heating of white solid ammonium chloride which changes to white fume of gaseous ammonium chloride.

The third example is dry ice. At room temperature the white solid carbon dioxide ( dry ice ) changes to colourless carbon dioxide gas.

The fourth example is naphthalene which at room temperature the white solid naphthalene changes to colourless naphthalene gas.

After learning all these scientific terms for states of matter during this science tuition class, can you explain why ice will melt at room temperature? At room temperature of about 240C, it is between the melting point 00C and boiling point 1000C of water. Hence, water is in the liquid state. The state of a substance depends on the substance’s boiling point and melting point and the temperature of the surroundings. Do join us at Miracle Learning Centre for more information on Science tuition and chemistry tuition classes.

At Miracle Learning Centre we offer innovative courses of secondary science tuition, primary science tuition, IP science tuition in Singapore where we will break down the toughest concepts of Chemistry into easy to understand lessons so that you can have a better understanding and can also improve your scores rapidly.