Kinetic Molecular Theory

04 Jun Kinetic Molecular Theory

The kinetic molecular theory also known as the kinetic theory of gases details the behavior of a hypothetical ideal gas. The theory elaborates that gases are made up of tiny particles in a straight motion. The movement between these gases is rapid and continuous to make collisions with each other and the walls. Kinetic theory enlists three main components:

  • There is no loss or gain of energy when molecules collide
  • The molecules in a gas take up a slight amount of space in relation to the container they occupy.
  • The molecules are in a linear motion.

This was one of the first theories to describe gas pressure in relation to collisions with the walls of a container, instead of the forces that push the molecules apart. In addition, the theory also explains that different sizes of the particles in a gas are bound to inculcate different speeds.

The theory has derived different explanations from various perspectives. Definitions are given by Boyle’s Law, Charles Law, Avogadro’s Law and Dalton’s Law. Each has a different manner of defining the Kinetic theory. Chemistry tuition classes teaches these laws in detail.

According to Boyle’s Law, the gas pressure varies as per the number of times the molecules strike the surface of a container. Whereas as per Charles’ Law the theory suggests that an increase in temperature increase the average kinetic energy of the molecules. If the molecules are moving faster but the pressure remains the same, the molecules will stay farther apart. Avogadro’s Law on the other hand explained that if the number of gas molecules are increased in a closed container, there will be more collisions with the walls per unit time. If the pressure is made to remain constant, the molecules will strike the walls less frequently. “Every Gas is a vacuum to every other gas” as explained by Dalton’s Law. Each gas present in a mixture of gases acts independent of the others.

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