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Some parents ask us ,”My son has read the whole chemistry textbook and understood everything. Why does he still not do well for Chemistry?”
The answer is very simple. Learning ‘O’ level and IP Chemistry is not just about reading the textbook. The danger is when the student thinks he has understood but in actual fact did not fully understand the chemistry concept. He is doing passive learning not active learning.
You need to understand the underlying chemistry concepts so that you can apply it to ALL types of questions. These are the fundamentals of Chemistry tuition concepts.
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All of our Chemistry Tuition teachers are NIE trained and have taught in schools for many years before. Our chemistry tuition teachers explain concepts very clearly and you can definitely understand what you do not understand or missed out in school. The chemistry tuition teachers are friendly and highly approachable. No Chemistry tuition questions will go unanswered. We take care of all the chemistry tuition students and make sure no one is left out.
There are 3 parts to learning Chemistry:
|Understand the concepts of the chapter
||Memorize the facts till you are 100% sure
||Do practice questions to
ensure you have learnt the chapter well
The study of Chemistry is not based on reading the textbook alone. Some students read the Chemistry textbook, understand what was explained but still do not perform well for the exams. There could be several reasons. By reading alone, you are not able to tell how much you know or understand.
First of all, you need to know the basic facts for every chapter very well. Very well means you need to know it 100%, not “probably ok”. If you are not sure, you probably have not FULLY grasped the concepts and facts of that chapter.
Let us try out on a simple topic
Take qualitative analysis for example, can you answer these questions confidently at anytime(mid Sec 3, start Sec 4 and end Sec 4)?
1) How do you test for nitrate ions?
2) What reagents do you need to test for zinc ions? What will you observe?
3) What is the name of the white precipitate formed when carbon dioxide is bubbled into limewater?
If you continue adding more carbon dioxide into the above, what happens and why?
4) What is the colour of copper(II) oxide?
5) What is the colour of zinc oxide?
What is a Litmus paper?
In chemistry tuition class, we will discuss about a way of finding out acidic and basic solutions. In laboratories, chemists and researchers use litmus paper to identify and differentiate between acids and alkalis or bases. The blue litmus paper is turned to red by acids, whereas, alkalis or bases turn red litmus to blue. In case of solutions that are neutral (not acidic or basic/alkaline) no change in color is observed. Dipping a piece of litmus paper within the unknown solution to identify whether it is acidic, basic or neutral in nature is a common laboratory practice. Do you have any idea about this litmus paper? Let your chemistry tuition give the answer for you.
Litmus is a natural dye from derived from ‘lichens’ that are one type of small plants. There are different varieties of lichens present that usually available in large quantities Netherlands. They are simple and slow growing plants that usually form a leaf or crust like growth on moist trees, rocks and walls. When lichen known as Rocella Tincotoria is made to react with lime, potassium carbonate or ammonia, it produces a material of blue color that can be used to color paper. Generally, papers are dipped into this solution followed by drying and the blue litmus paper thus gets prepared to test acids.
The red dye is acquired from cudbear or orchil a different type of lichen species. The red litmus paper is produced using this dye as well as using alkanna or alkanet, another type of dye obtained from the root of the Alkanna Tinctoria. Alkannin, the ingredient, giving the color is soluble in different solvents such as ether, benzene and alcohol. Usually alkanet is dissolved in alcohol to prepare the solution in which white paper is immersed and it becomes red. This paper has turned to blue shed by alkalis.
Nowadays, preparation of litmus paper is carried out with the help of different chemical substances like azolitmin, spaniolitmin, crysthrolitmin and so on. These compounds are in fact blend of strongly related compounds detected in 1961 as heterocyclic derivatives of the phenoxazine. Hope you enjoyed this lesson from chemistry tuition. We will be back with more such interesting findings in our next chemistry tuition.
Why do some acids cause burn?
You have all know about acids through your chemistry tuition classes. You are always told to be careful while handling acid in your chemistry tuition classes. As explained by your chemistry tuition teacher, acid is a sour substance that turns red litmus paper, reacts with certain reactive metals to liberate hydrogen, reacts with a base to give salts and water. It also promotes some certain types of chemical reactions. There are two main chemical groups of acids. They are inorganic acids and organic acids. The organic acids contain carbon while the inorganic acids don not. All acids when dissolved in water release hydrogen ions. Hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulfuric acid are the examples of inorganic acids. They are also called mineral acids and are very strong acids. Formic acid, acetic acid, citric acid are examples of organic acids and are weaker.
Most of the organic acids are harmless to us, but the inorganic acids can be dangerous. Concentrated inorganic acids can burn or wound the skin. Do you know why some acids burn the body? Again, your chemistry tuition teacher will give the answer to that.
The inorganic acids have a strong tendency to absorb water and give out a great deal of heat in the process. Since most of the living cells contain water, the strong acids like hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulfuric acid react with them and kill the cells causing severe burns. The emission of heat in the process also aids in the burn caused by acids.
Special precautions should be taken by the persons handling strong acids. They should wear special clothes to protect their bodies from burns. The acid must always be poured slowly into the water and never the other way round. If you are burned by an acid you should wash your akin with lots of water, followed by a weak ammonia solution. If your eyes are affected, flush them immediately with a lot of water and then with bicarbonate of soda solution, which neutralizes any acid left. Hope you enjoyed this lesson from chemistry tuition. We will be back with more such interesting findings in our next chemistry tuition class.
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